Intuitive Intelligence theories and its measurements
Intuitive Intelligence Theories and its Measurements
Over thousands of years, human intuitive intelligence has been an area of debate. Most theories and studies have been conducted to explain human intelligence, and 1 impacts of the theories on various disciplines, such as psychology and education. (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). Additionally, intuitive intelligence theories are broad and interesting subject, especially how the theories are related to each other’s and the application of various concepts, such as physics postulate unobservable concepts. Theories of intuitive intelligence are very impactful, especially after measurements, and quantification of human ability in learning and creativity. This paper aims to discuss types of intuitive intelligence theories and explain their measurements.
Intuitive intelligence is considered the ability to think paradoxically, holistically, and influence instead of creating and connecting with others and oneself. Intuition is the highest form of intelligence. Intuitive psychology is a very complex subject, especially in understanding learned responses that are not the products of deliberate processes. Intuitive intelligence assists in decision making and in solving several problems (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). There are two types of intuition, intuitive insight and intuitive judgment. Both intuitions are involved with moral intuition, aesthetic intuition, ad problem solving intuition. On problem solving intuition, intuitive judgment Assists in thinking about an alternative, or a direction, which intuitive insight is concerned with developing a solution that involves new knowledge or decisions.
Additionally, intuitive judgment plays an important role in morality, where intuition assist, make judgments on whether a certain action is good or bad. On the other hand, intuitive insight enables one to develop new moral values towards a situation. Intuitive enables one to judge whether something or a process is beautiful, good, or bad. On the other hand, intuitive insight helps create a beautiful thing or a situation through how individuals perceive that particular thing or process (Yip, et, al.,2020).
Intuitive theories do not necessarily explain what happens but explain the provided evidence, especially in describing how the results or evidence came to be. Intuitive theory plays a very important role in explaining development in children, especially the mind’s theory. Children apply intuitive theories, especially those below the age of four since at this point, children have not learned about behaviours and various beliefs that may influence reality. For instance, children have various expectations concerning goal achievement (Yip, et, al.,2020). The main structure and nature of the intuitive theory are their ability to handle uncertainty and explain causal explanations.
Intuitive theories involve the psychometric theory of intelligence, the spearman theory of intelligence (Yip, et, al.,2020). The spearman theory of intelligence was developed by Charles Spearman, a theory created from the two-factor theory of intelligence. According to Spearman, intelligence is the mental ability or capacity that influence ability and performance. According to the theory, a person’s mental ability helps make decisions and acquire knowledge-based on judgment and reasoning. Ability encompasses mechanical and numerical ability (Sobkow, et, al., 2018).
Performance and ability are influenced by the general theory of intelligence, which can be measured through the factor analysis that helps identify an individual’s mental ability. For instance, according to various tests, people who perform well in questions concerned with equations are good at solving diverse mathematical problems. According to Spearman, general intelligence is based on knowledge, visual-spatial processing, reasoning, and quantitative reasoning. However, general intelligence is considered the ability to solve a particular problem, while quantitative reasoning is the ability to solve numbers problems (Yip, et, al.,2020). On the other hand, interpreting visual information, such as interpreting security codes and encryption numbers, is known as visual-spatial intelligence.
Psychometric theories of intuitive intelligence are another type of theory that assists in understanding the structure of intelligence. The theory is developed from results collected from mental ability measurements, for example, series completion. The psychometric theory provides a belief that mental ability tests provide an individual’s ability to perform a particular task (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). For instance, Spearman’s theory is one of the psychometric theories that provides that an individual with the ability to perform well on mental ability tests can perform well in other tests. According to the theory, performance is based on mental tests and general factors; for instance, for a person to do well in a computer science exam, they must know about computer systems. Many psychologists have come up with various intuitive intelligence theories, for instance, Cattle and Vernon, that concluded that intelligence is hierarchical, where ability begins at the top.
The dual-process theory is another intuitive human intelligence theory of cognition that explain various intelligent behaviours. According to the theory, intelligent behaviours are determined by individual performance in science and arts. According to the theory, intuitive intelligence is determined by a hierarchy of cognitive processes (Yip, et, al.,2020). According to dual-process theory, various random processes require a high level of resources and control, compared to goal-directed processes, which do not consume many resources.
According to dual-process theory, intelligent behaviour is determined by spontaneous cognitive processes and goal-directed processes. The theory provides that intelligent behaviour depends on the ability to switch various modes depending on the situation. On the other hand, applying a certain idea or decision making depends on the intellectual ability of a person to switch into different modes based on the spontaneity of the situation (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). On the other hand, intuitive human ability keeps changing across life, hence not static. Intuition and intelligence are based on passion and inspiration. For instance, the more an individual thinks about something, the more the individual will develop the intuition that assists in making a new decision or modifying the current decision based on their judgment (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). On the other hand, depart from spontaneous cognition, goal-directed cognition plays a big role in determining intelligence behaviour in a person. Goal-directed cognition involves the tendency to participate or have a particular thought for a long time, hence using the thought and prior behaviour to solve a particular problem, make decisions, and instinctively judge a situation.
On the other hand, controlled cognition influences intellectual behaviours, where the hierarchy includes self-control, self-regulation, reflective engagement, working memory, and mental flexibility. Spontaneous cognition is a major aspect of the dual-process theory that involves acquiring information spontaneously and engaging in spontaneous decision making. Spontaneous form of cognition involves the ability to experience daydreams and gut feelings concerning a particular situation (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). Spontaneous cognition constructs include latent inhibition, daydreaming, long-term memory, aesthetics, desires, and beliefs. The dual-process theory is new and has not yet received criticism; the theory has been supported by various studies concerning intelligent behaviours’ impacts on verbal analogical reasoning (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). According to the dual-process theory, an individual can learn various environmental cues and patterns that help make various decisions.
Implicit process and emotional experience are an intuition theory that involves identifying various internal and external life patterns that are saved in the sub-conscious mind. However, the patterns become familiar and hence become default patterns that the brain and the nervous system maintenance. A good example is the digestive system’s pattern and hormonal system that forms in the brain, hence becoming familiar to the body (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). The patterns, however, are frequently monitored by the body hence determining a particular feeling and behaviour. For instance, after the brain recognizes the pattern, once food or water is introduced to the body, the brain develops perception and behaviour towards the factor.
The implicit process is an intuitive intelligence process that involves the heart’s process in creating consciousness, especially in discussing how memory and behaviour patterns of past events play an important role in emotional perception and intuition. For instance, an individual has acquired experience from a certain field, the implicit intuitions recognized the patterns of the experience and developed appropriate judgment and problem-solving (Sobkow, et, al., 2018).
Intuitive intelligence theories are highly applied in the criminal justice systems, especially in making judgments and decisions concerning a particular case. According to the high-confidence prediction theory, decisions made with high confidence are likely to be correct part from decisions made with low confidence. In most fields, such as in medicine, physicians’ confidence in making various decisions, such as in inserting catheters, plays an important role in enhancing accuracy (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). According to research carried out in the united states, most physicians reported having low confidence despite being highly dedicated and bright. Another intuitive theory includes the belief that expertise has only benefits and not cost. The intuitive theory explains why people behave predictably, especially intuition based on various cognitive processes (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). Describing the happening or evidence is conducted through various psychological theories, mental states, and beliefs that shape the evidence. The dual process of creativity is one of the intuition theories that involves understanding how the mind operates through type one and type two processing. A dual-process concentrates on autonomy.
Intuition can be measured through the constructive thinking inventory and the rational inventory for measuring a person’s intuitive information processing. According to the constructive thinking inventory, not everyone has an equal level of intelligence; hence some people have higher intelligence than others (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). CTI measurement uses several measurement scales, for instance, personal superstitious thinking, naive optimism, esoteric thinking, and behavioural coping. Additionally, CTI measurements are also used to measure intellectual performance, especially in mental adjustment, social competency, and successful living and work success. Another measurement includes the rational or experimental inventory used to test and provide the advantages and disadvantages of intuitive thinking styles (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). The measurement methods are used to identify the differences in individual thinking styles and their ability and attributes. The REI measures intuitive thinking styles and measures the performance in conducting various tests, such as a sense of humour, creativity, aesthetic judgment, and intuitive ability.
On the other hand, intuition intelligence can be measured through a single number, for instance, Stanford Binet’s use, which measures the g factor. According to Binet, intelligence is the ability to maintain, discover definite direction, and engage in self-criticism that helps adjust to the strategy (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). According to Binet, intuition intelligence can be expressed through reasoning, judgment, and reasoning ability. Another method of measuring intuitive intelligence involves the use of trial and error, especially in measuring judgment. On the other hand, the individual used various theories such as mental ability and age differentiation, which play a big role in intuitive human intelligence (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). Another type of intelligence is the verbal analogies, which measure explicit cognitive abilities, especially in identifying the relationship between various activities. The Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) is another type of intuitive measurement method, which describes how people experience feeling, intuition, and sensation. The intuition scale focuses on collecting information concerning that can be used to provide a creative solution.
Nevertheless, the sense of intuition scale (SoIS) is an intuition intelligence scale used to identify the symptoms of intuitive processing. For instance, the scale assists in decision-making, especially where an individual does not understand the source of a certain feeling, judgment, or knowledge and requires certainty before making a decision (Sobkow, et, al., 2018). The Westcott test of intuitive ability (WTIA) is another measurement scale through information demand and recognition success indicators to identify a higher intuition. Raven advanced progressive matrices (RAPM) is an intuitive measurement scale, mostly for testing fluid intelligence. The last type of measurement includes the NEO-PI-R subscale used for testing actions, feelings, and fantasy. The NEO-PI-R scale is used together with other scales, such as the 4-point scale and the sense of intuition scale (Yip, et, al.,2021).
The structure of intuition is complex, where according to Tversky and Kahneman, intuition is a non-liners model of thinking or a logical method of reasoning. According to another psychologist, intuition does not follow nor contradicts, hence neither logical nor illogical. Intuition is categorized into intuitive knowledge and intuitive insight. Intuitive theories determine how people behave in a particular manner and predictable ways. On the other hand, the intuitive theory explains how influential high-confident can be inaccurate. According to intuitive theory, high confidence in performing a task increases the task’s chances of being accurate.
On the other hand, expertise has benefits and not costs are a concept that seeks to explain that people who have skills and expertise in a certain field have higher chances of performing higher than those without the skills. Schema-based reasoning, cognitive styles, and expertise versus algorithm are theories that explain the development of intuition. According to intuition theories, experts make quick and spontaneous judgments that end up being correct and accurate compared to people who take time to think and decide (Alaybek, et, al.,2021). The quick decision makers achieve the highest level of accuracy compared to slow decision-makers. Based on the theory, achieving expertise in a certain area is challenging, especially where people judge human behaviour based on their predictions. Intuition intelligence has several unresolved aspects over the years. One, whether intuition should be restricted to valid beliefs, lack of a source of intuition, especially an explanation on the intuitive processing (Yip, et, al., 2020). Additionally, whether intuition can be accounted for through a single process instead of a dual process and how important is the role of intuition experience.
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Sobkow, A., Traczyk, J., Kaufman, S. B., & Nosal, C. (2018). The structure of intuitive abilities and their relationships with intelligence and Openness to Experience. Intelligence, 67, 1-10.
Yip, J. A., Stein, D. H., Côté, S., & Carney, D. R. (2020). Follow your gut? Emotional intelligence moderates the association between physiologically measured somatic markers and risk-taking. Emotion, 20(3), 462.