Posted: August 10th, 2020

Marketing Analysis Of SPAO

Moreover the Second Hallyu, “Korean wave,” has merely begun in Japan. Among the many hottest Korean girl bands, corresponding to “Women’ Know-how” and “Kara,” have entered the Japanese leisure market and are extending the first Hallyu, which was primarily centered at heart aged Japanese women, to children and twenties. These Korean celebrities are popularizing Korean custom and the Korean nationwide mannequin image. [3] 

The E-Land Group, the daddy or mom agency of SPAO, is rising itself inside the Asian type sector. At current, seventeen producers beneath E-Land Group, corresponding to “Teenie Weenie,” are working in China, with product sales nearing one trillion Korean acquired. [4] The group will enter the Indian market inside the near future [5] , nevertheless at current has not entered the Japanese one however, though Japan is among the many largest economies on the planet.

The state of affairs is at current favorable for E-Land Group inside the Japanese type market on account of rising demand for SPA producers and rising fame of Korean custom. The E-Land Group, with its enlargement method all by way of Asia, is extra more likely to enter the Japanese market sometime. Although world SPA producers are already in Japan, considering the weather talked about above, SPAO could be wise to enter the market now ensuing from this finest different.

What’s SPAO?

SPAO is a mannequin launched by Korea’s largest type group, the E-Land Group, and is concentrated on the SPA market of the type market. SPA, which means “Specialty retailer for Private label Apparel,” is a enterprise model launched by the American type mannequin GAP in 1986. The traits of SPA embrace the company managing all processes ranging from design, manufacture, distribution and product sales [6] . Some examples of SPAs are Uniqlo, Zara, Mango, and H&M. As an alternative of distributing its merchandise by malls, SPAs save costs by immediately managing the outlets, which may lastly lower the worth of merchandise. SPAs are moreover generally known as “fast type” on account of they’ll react to the purchasers’ demand and the market state of affairs shortly by adjusting their present inside one to 2 weeks.

The E-Land Group launched its first SPA mannequin SPAO in July 2009, and opened its first retailer in Myeongdong, Seoul on November 25, 2009. The mannequin opened as a 3 means partnership with SM Leisure, Korea’s largest leisure group [7] . Current industrial fashions of the mannequin are the boy band Large Junior and girl band Women’ Know-how, every groups belonging to SM Leisure. Each of the groups served as salesclerks on the opening day and two days later respectively. On the fourth floor of the Myeongdong retailer is “Everysing,” a retailer operated by SM Leisure selling objects related to celebrities of the company. This has a synergy impression with the type mannequin on account of fandom of the youthful know-how on these celebrities [8] .

The effectivity of the first opening month was extraordinary. Product sales revenue was two billion acquired, which is the most important launching revenue ever for an E-Land mannequin. This amount simply is not too fully totally different from totally different world SPA producers, nevertheless considering that indisputable fact that SPAO is a extremely youthful mannequin, and that it does not perform on Sundays, its effectivity is certainly towering above totally different associated companies [9] . The prices are 30~40 % cheaper than Uniqlo, and by means of top of the range and design, SPAO is taken under consideration to be merely just about pretty much as good [10] . At current there are 13 outlets working in Korea whereas in Myeongdong retailer alone the product sales attain about 1.three billion Korean acquired each month [11] .

SPAO is concentrated the least bit age groups, from children to people in fifties. Crucial groups of buyers are children and different folks of their twenties, adopted by these of their thirties. Nevertheless, shoppers in forties and fifties moreover accounted for 10 % of the product sales, so it could be acknowledged that the mannequin is normally favored all through all age groups.

Japanese Apparel Enterprise

The Japanese apparel market has quite a lot of distinguishing traits, notably as compared with the US and Korean market. On this half, we deal with the traits of the markets in largely three parts: market developments, distributional traits of the market, and variations between the Japanese and Korean markets.

To start with, by the use of market developments, [12] the Japanese market has undergone extreme downturns on account of nation’s long-term recessions. The apparel sector, along with totally different shopper merchandise markets, expert extreme slowness by the use of product sales and income growth. In 2007, Japanese malls recorded 7,705,200,000,000 JPY of revenue, nevertheless this itself was a decline from the sooner years. The apparel half, which was as soon as the precept drive of revenue, confirmed a 2.three % decrease whereas the meals and drinks half grew to turn into the model new excessive revenue house.

Along with this, the utilization of Japanese-produced supplies decreased. Japanese apparel producers used to utilize Japanese-produced supplies a lot; nonetheless the apparel market has shrunk to beneath 10 trillion JPY, which is bigger than 30% decrease as compared with its peak dimension of 13 trillion JPY. Worldwide SPA (Specialty-store/retailer of Private label Apparel) producers, corresponding to Inditex’s Zara, H&M, the Gap are all flooding into the Japanese market, and the Japanese opponents are at current current course of extreme downturns and restructuring contained in the market. Uniqlo, a Japanese SPA mannequin that is well-known for its cozy and low price clothes, is an exception as a result of the enterprise model is kind of very like its worldwide counterparts.

The second attribute of the Japanese market is talked about by the use of the distribution channels. Traditionally, the apparel makers used two sorts of distribution networks; immediately operated retailers, corresponding to flagship outlets on the street, and membership outlets merely current in malls. Membership outlets are at current declining along with malls normally, given that membership commissions do not generate low-cost earnings. As an alternative, [13] select retailers, a retailer of chosen objects from clothes, sneakers and elegance tools, are rising. BEAMS, United Arrows and SHIP are the marketing consultant chains of these select retailers and current promising revenues.

Moreover by the use of distributional traits, the Japanese market is printed so that the peak and off-peak seasons are clearly separated. Rather more explicitly than its western counterparts, the market has the product distribution cycle of 4 months. In January and February, the spring new arrivals come to market they usually’re purchased out in March and April. Summer season season merchandise come to market in June and July, they usually’re accomplished in July and August. Winter merchandise, as properly, can be found September and October, and their cycle is completed in November and December. The peak sale seasons are January and July, and the grand bargains are massive even as compared with totally different European and American markets.

There are moreover fundamental variations between the Korean and Japanese apparel markets. The Korean market, in contrast with the Japanese market, sees a lot much less significance inside the males’s apparel sector. As of late this house reveals indicators of growth in Korea, nevertheless considering that there are malls dedicated to males’s merchandise like Isetan Males and Marui Males in Japan, the proportion of males’s merchandise in Korean market is incomparable to its Japanese counterparts.

Moreover, the type developments of the Japanese apparel market are very fully totally different from another market of the world. Accordingly, when a worldwide mannequin like Korean SPAO targets this sector, it is endorsed to develop Japan-specialized merchandise.


Rivals contained in the Japanese Market

The Japanese type market has traditionally been saturated with high-end merchandise from the best designers. Nonetheless, there was a change of route in areas corresponding to the type districts of Shibuya and Harajuku as prospects have adjusted their type varieties away from the most expensive producers to cheaper selections. This has prompted a giant flux in Japanese habits as luxurious outlets have been pressured to shut down whereas garments retailers corresponding to Zara and H&M have moved in. Although the change has been fairly newest, the reverberations have already been felt tremendously. Japanese companies corresponding to Uniqlo have seen their earnings rise, whereas all types of worldwide opponents have moved in over the last 5 years. No matter this immense fluctuation, there could also be nonetheless a limiteless and untapped market for SPAO to maneuver in given the extent of differentiation in ideas along with purpose market. With the intention to make clear this extra, it is essential to check out Zara, Uniqlo, and one other minor opponents. [15] 


Uniqlo is a subsidiary of Fast Retailing and is at current led by the richest specific individual in Japan, Tadashi Yanai. It has expanded at an unimaginable payment over the last 15 years and is a extremely highly effective competitor for any garments retailer that is searching for to enter into Japan. It primarily relies on terribly low price clothes that are made in China, whereas nonetheless specializing in being cozy and providing various colors. Its strengths though are moreover its weaknesses. In Japan, it is seen as being clothes that you just’d placed on throughout the home nevertheless not basically placed on to a social event. Which signifies that although Uniqlo will promote a giant amount of garments for each day supplies, it doesn’t truly compete with the SPAO mannequin supplied that the purpose markets are absolutely fully totally different. SPAO focuses on stylish and low price garments geared within the path of a primarily youthful market part which Uniqlo has more-or-less been unsuccessful at controlling. Uniqlo simply these days has tried to increase its presence within the path of the youth market though, which signifies that SPAO might must act earlier to Uniqlo delving into its core competency.


Zara, which is owned by Inditex, can perhaps current the right model for a worthwhile garments agency rising into Japan and discovering a definite section. Having been in Japan since 1998, Zara has prepare a giant purchaser base spherical its outlets that are typically located in high-end areas. This has provided Zara an exquisite mannequin image, even though Zara could also be very well-known for not promoting their merchandise by in depth selling. This makes Zara distinctive as compared with totally different worldwide retailers in Japan, which have tried to interrupt into the nation by the use of intensive media campaigns. Zara moreover emphasizes fast type and focuses on with the flexibility to flip concepts into merchandise prior to totally different garments companies. The quickness and variety of fashions, together with nonetheless being low price adequate to enchantment to the on a regular basis shopper, has made Zara an superior stress inside the Japanese market.

There are quite a few attributes that Zara has that worldwide companies could be taught from within the occasion that they should switch into Japan, nevertheless there are nonetheless some methods by way of which SPAO differentiates from Zara and may even eclipse it in the long run. First, 64% of Zara’s manufacturing takes place in European nations [16] . Whereas Zara acclaims that this allows them to quicken manufacturing events and improve prime quality, SPAO’s cheaper manufacturing companies in China would allow them to advertise clothes for decrease than Zara is prepared too. In addition to, Zara’s image is geared within the path of adults who can afford their clothes and need to keep appropriately stylish. SPAO alternatively targets a youthful market and has so far relied way more on selling and celebrity endorsements. As a result of this reality whereas Zara can perform an inspiration for SPAO, it doesn’t aspire for the same space of curiosity as SPAO does.

Totally different Large Retailers

Whereas Zara and Uniqlo current an fascinating dichotomy of how garments outlets have reacted to the change in Japanese developments, there are lots of totally different massive garments retailers which have made forays into the Japanese retail market. The two largest ones, Gap and H&M, current fascinating case analysis on what works and doesn’t work at current. Gap, which has competed internationally for a couple of years, has started to falter ensuing from its lack of innovation and an increase in opponents. No matter having 123 outlets in Japan [17] , Gap’s emphasis on cozy garments and elementary type has primarily been duplicated by Uniqlo. The reality is, Uniqlo’s methodology of enlargement was based totally off of Gap’s SPA (Specialty-store and retailer of Private label Apparel) protection. H&M has moreover simply these days moved into the Japanese market, nevertheless supplied that it has been spherical in Japan for lots decrease than its opponents, there isn’t rather a lot to be taught so far for SPAO. There could also be though a precedence that H&M’s pricing might in actuality be too low and can scare away some shoppers. Whereas there are totally different big companies which have begun to broaden in Japan, corresponding to Eternally 21, most of them do not have associated market segments as SPAO and subsequently wouldn’t initially be fundamental opponents.

Teen and Youthful Grownup Specialty Retailers

SPAO has differed itself from most of its potential opponents by focus, price-structure, and methodology of selling. Nonetheless, there are a selection of minor opponents that overlap in some areas with SPAO. The foremost one which has merely entered Japan is Abercrombie and Fitch. This American firm does adjust to the strategy of concentrating on children and youthful adults, nevertheless this may be very newest and most analysts think about it has carried out a poor job of adapting to the Japanese market. On its first day at its new flagship retailer in Ginza, Abercrombie and Fitch had been rumored to have made ¥50 million [18] . Nonetheless, most of this has been attributed to fascination with the eccentric methods of enterprise. As an illustration, Abercrombie and Fitch employed many employees who did not converse Japanese and chosen instead to adjust to an American enterprise mannequin instead of a traditional Japanese retailer custom. Equally, Abercrombie and Fitch tends to lean within the path of upscale in its pricing building, which could exclude the purpose market of SPAO. Thus, supplied that Abercrombie solely has its main retailer and that its pricing model excludes most Japanese youth, SPAO’s finest market part continues to be open for the taking.

Entry methodology

SPAO’s worldwide method relies on that of its mother agency (E-Land) which has set a goal of making world income of [19] 15,000,000,000,000 Korean Obtained by 2015. [20] SPAO is planning to make itself a mannequin that operates worldwide. In order to take motion, it has already started working in China, Vietnam and India. As talked about above, given that traits of Japanese type commerce is popping favorably within the path of the short type model enterprise, it’s a probability for SPAO to broaden itself into the Japanese market. With the intention to enter Japanese market, one has to first resolve which entry methodology the company ought to make use of. There are fairly a couple of strategies of entry that SPAO may have in mind, nevertheless briefly the precept selections they’ve are of the following: licensing, three means partnership, export, equity alliance and full possession.

Licensing is an entry methodology the place the daddy or mom agency permits a neighborhood agency to utilize its mannequin title for positive interval. By using the licensing methodology, SPAO can decrease down the worth of coming into as they’ll be utilizing a neighborhood agency’s sources. [21] Nonetheless, that’s an entry methodology SPAO mustn’t use for two causes. First, when using licensing, it is onerous to handle the product prime quality. The native agency couldn’t protect the usual of product adequate, which could finish in hurting SPAO’s mannequin image. Second, SPAO’s mannequin image simply is not properly established adequate to realize success in using the licensing methodology in Japan. When using the licensing methodology, it is vitally necessary have a robust mannequin power nevertheless SPAO’s current mannequin power could also be very weak in Japan.

There are quite a few advantages of choosing the three means partnership methodology. First, SPAO can take advantage of the already established companies and distribution channels of its Japanese confederate. Second, there shall be a lot much less interference from the Japanese authorities as a result of the three means partnership agency shall be considered partly a Japanese company. Third, it’s going to doubtless be inexpensive to enter ensuing from the reality that the hazards are shared with the three means partnership confederate. [22] No matter the advantages, we think about that SPAO mustn’t choose a 3 means partnership as their entry methodology each. Whereas using joint ventures it is onerous to make a quick decision on account of two confederate companies have to return again to an settlement with a objective to behave. Nonetheless SPAO’s core competency, fast type, requires the company to behave shortly which a 3 means partnership would have problem doing. For associated causes that had been beforehand talked about, export and equity alliances are moreover poor selections. They’re each too expensive and/or SPAO would have too little administration to behave shortly to market modifications.

In conclusion, SPAO must enter the Japanese type market by the possession entry methodology with a objective to ensure long-term success. SPAO’s enterprise model, SPA, requires a company to have full administration over manufacturing, retailing and distribution channels. With the administration, SPAO can lower costs and assure fast product cycles with a objective to current up-to-date trendy stylish merchandise at an inexpensive worth. Nonetheless, that’s unattainable to understand with totally different entry methods on account of they’re each too sluggish in decision making or too expensive. To ensure that SPAO has a long-term safe place in Japan, it is best to enter utilizing the possession entry methodology.

Promoting Method – SPAO with SM Leisure

SPAO’s main promotion method is celebrity promoting and advertising and marketing. [23] They collaborate with SM leisure to promote their mannequin image and industrial, benchmarking Gap’s promotion methodology. The favored Korean girl and boy groups, Girl’s Know-how and Large Junior, are the precept spokespeople for SPAO. Throughout the fast time interval, celebrity promoting and advertising and marketing performs a significant perform to accumulate shoppers’ consideration and press publicity. It is anticipated that this technique can have a vivid future in Japan.

24The Korean wave or Korean fever refers again to the significantly elevated fame of South Korean custom world huge. Moreover it is called Hallyu(韓流) using the Korean pronunciation. The Korean wave hit Japan and loads of Japanese people are fascinated by Korean custom. Korean companies have been benefiting from Hallyu of their promoting and advertising and marketing, which has helped improve exports. As of late girl groups have develop to be a model new provide of Hallyu leisure. The youthful and pretty girls have been criticized for not having true experience, nevertheless evidently they’ve morphed into one different very important pathway to unfold Korean custom.

25Girl’s Know-how, one amongst well-known pop groups in Korea, was ranked second in Japan’s weekly Oricon chart monitor which is called “GEE”. They’re the first non-Japanese Asian group to take motion and the second worldwide female group to realize this extreme in 30 years. Girl’s Know-how has develop to be well-liked with many Japanese girls, and inside the course of the band has develop to be a method icon. Japanese children have sought to imitate all of the band’s life-style picks, notably inside the areas of cosmetics and garments. As a result of this, SPAO in all probability has a really extremely efficient promotion merchandise. For example, in advertisements, celebrity fashions may placed on SPAO merchandise, which could assemble up knowledge about SPAO’s varieties and cheap prices. Through these promoting and advertising and marketing skills, and using strong intimacy and constructive images within the path of its potential prospects, the mannequin would have the facility to develop in a model new market.

SPAO from the beginning faces a significant issue in that it has to compete with world opponents like Inditex, H&M and Uniqlo. The short type market, or SPA market, is already stuffed with such worldwide producers. SPAO has confirmed its ambition not just for the Korean market however moreover for the world market. The Myeongdong flagship retailer is among the many largest outlets spherical at three,000㎡, and likewise has quite a few leisure places contained within the establishing along with a restaurant, karaoke room and a family restaurant. Up to now, it has been worthwhile every amongst Korean and worldwide vacationers.

Similar to the Myeongdong flagship, we think about SPAO must launch its first Japanese flagship in a downtown house corresponding to Ginza or Shibuya. Preliminary capital expenditure will in reality be massive, nevertheless a flagship retailer in a central house could be helpful for making the first impression that SPAO targets, that SPAO clothes are low price and distinctive in prime quality. The Japanese flagship will even be a combination of apparel retailer and leisure objects retailer, which may create a spill-over industrial impression too.

One different potential entry method for SPAO is cooperation with a Japanese leisure agency. SPAO is already a 3 means partnership between SM leisure, the top-level Korean leisure agency and E-land. AVEX or Frequent Music Japan, beneath which SM leisure’s girl/boy groups are working, would provide confederate to advertise to the youth market. An settlement with these well-known leisure companies will ease the entry barrier, along with further the mannequin image by hiring idol stars for fashions, like SPAO doing correct now in Korea.


Basic, SPAO has a perfect different correct now to enter the Japanese market given its current method in Korea. If SPAO acts to promote Hallyu in Japan whereas on the equivalent time specializing in its pop-star pushed promoting and advertising and marketing, it would in all probability positively fill the opening inside the rising Japanese SPA part. Although it is nonetheless a relatively youthful mannequin, SPAO ought to division out shortly if it must affix the ranks of such companies like H&M and Zara. By following a model of fundamental possession whereas concurrently working with Japanese leisure companies, SPAO can be able to market to the Japanese youth and twenties age bracket in a signifies that totally different companies aren’t correct now. Whereas SPAO is primarily focused on the Korean market now, with our advice it might presumably be the next-big-thing in Japan as properly.

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