The text lists various typologies that differentiate policies on the basis of their effects on society and the relationship among those involved in their formation. These include Constituent, Distributive, Regulatory, Self-Regulatory, and Redistributive Policies. Another typology used to categorize public policies is conservative vs liberal. Briefly describe the characteristics of these two types of policies and provide some criminal justice examples of each. Be sure to discuss the merits and limitations (pros/cons) of each example you give.
This is a short research paper (2-3 pages). You should use MS word and attach in the proper place. You should include a title page, in-text citations, and a reference list. You should write in third person and there should be no direct quotes.
Public policies are vital aspects in society as they determine the political, economic, social, and cultural operations defined by the different actions, regulations, and laws to achieve different governmental, state, or corporate objectives in a country. The public policies are instituted in government and institutions as a code of operations, and they are differentiated based on their effect and relationship among the parties involved, such as the redistributive, self-regulatory, constituent, regulatory and distributive. Conservative and liberal policies are two distinctive public policies adopted in running the social, political, cultural, and economic aspects of a country, and they have different characteristics and respective merits and limitations.
Conservative vs. Liberal
Conservative public policy
Conservative public policy takes the incorporations and maintenance of traditions or rejection of actions that do not conform to social norms in the economic, social, political, and cultural aspects of the people in a nation (Tonge, Wilks and Thompson, 2020). The traditional values are maintained in public policies and operations. Conservatives institute power among the people and nations to attain ethical behavior and enhance responsible use of liberty.
Characteristics of conservative public policy
Conservative public policy has different characteristics that define its operations and state. In this regard, conservatism has high regard for maintaining traditions by maintaining and avoiding political or social change. For instance, conservatives place a high notion of tradition and calls for respect and honor to institutions and practices that have a long history (Tonge, Wilks, and Thompson, 2020). Consequently, conservatism is based on pragmatism that insists on humans using their reasoning to fully understand the world with its all complications. For instance, doubt has been placed on abstract principles of tolerance, equality, and freedom in governance. Instead, it uses faith in practical experience and acts pragmatically in running government and institutions. Consequently, the conservatism campaign for an organic society emphasizes that all people are rooted in society. For instance, all people are born to be part of the larger society (family, community, or nation) links that contribute to sustaining us, fostering sense, and shaping the character vital to the society. Additionally, conservatives insist on hierarchy and authority in their operations. Conservatives argue that hierarchy and inequality are distinct aspects of society; thus, there must be meaningful social equality characterized by impossible objectives, power, wealth, and status.
Merits and limitations of the conservancy
The conservative public policy in governance has different advantages. In this regard, conservatism is associated with a high degree of stability in governance and operations (Peele and Francis, 2016). The stability in conservatism arises from the maintenance of traditions as opposed to complete progressiveness. Consequently, the conservative governances are characterized by a thriving economy, well-protected liberties, and a strong military, thus ensuring that people experience society’s greater good. Equally important, conservative governments have accountability and fiscal responsibility, ensuring that there is appropriate governance. On the limitations, conservatives governments do not experience long-term political victory on issues of public interests to insistence on the status quo as the end game.
Liberal public policy
The liberal public policy takes a political and moral philosophy founded on consent, liberty, equality, and a great sense of progressiveness in governances, political, economic, and social aspects (Barry, Osborne and Rose, 2013). The liberal governance emphasizes strict adherence to the rule of law while emphasizing system checks and balances, independence of the judiciary, and separation of powers.
Characteristics of liberalism
Liberalism has a different characteristic that is based on governance and modes of operations. In this regard, liberalism is based on the individualism principle, meaning that individual welfare should come before any collective group’s social welfare or welfare. People are unique in identity, taste, and character, and such distinctiveness should be considered important. Consequently, freedom is a key principle in liberalism (Barry, Osborne, and Rose, 2013). Therefore, society should be organized appropriately to ensure people can live as they wish. For instance, there are free and fair elections for people to determine their future. Furthermore, the aspects of rights are central to liberalism. Rights ensure that individuals and groups of people observe the rights of others as enshrined in the constitution. Basic and human rights are extended to every party in society as agreed through reasoning. Moreover, rationalism ensures that people have the freedom and ability to reason and understand traditional ideas on learning, politics, and religion. Therefore, rationalism calls for freedom since people are reasonable and considerate, believe in progress, and discuss to ensure that the social, cultural, and political issues are progressive. Equally important, liberalism emphasizes justice and equality for all as a matter of moral decision-making on sharing opportunities and resources. Justice and equality in society are defined by basic equality, formal equality, and equal opportunities. Lastly, liberalism calls for tolerance and pluralism. Liberalism appreciates that people are different based on moral, political, and cultural standing; thus, there is a need to tolerate diversity. For instance, people accommodate each other despite the differences, thus leading a free life.
Merits and limitations of liberalism
Liberalism has its share of advantages and disadvantages. On the advantages, liberalism plays a constructive role in preserving human rights, promoting economic opportunities for the people, and protecting the environment in the interest of the people (Pyykkonen, 2015). Consequently, liberalism promotes economic growth through less government regulation to inhibit business growth, making the government productive and innovative. Additionally, liberalism is associated with enhancing fair completion on business, promoting collective security, promoting equality, and human rights. On the limitations, liberalism is associated with unfair business operation, excessive freedom of business, over-dependence on the government to meet personal, political, economic, and social needs of the people, promotion of unhealthy moral issues, and promotion of undesirable cultural issues inherited from other societies such as dressing, mode of eating or lifestyle.
Barry, A., Osborne, T., & Rose, N. (Eds.). (2013). Foucault and Political Reason: liberalism, neo-liberalism and the rationalities of government.
Peele, G., & Francis, J. (2016). Introduction: The politics of Conservative renewal. In David Cameron and Conservative renewal. Manchester University Press.
Pyykkönen, M. (2015). Liberalism, governmentality and counter-conduct; an introduction to Foucauldian analytics of liberal civil society notions. Foucault Studies, 8-35.
Tonge, J., Wilks-Heeg, S., & Thompson, L. (2020). Introduction: A Conservative Victory Like No Other?. Parliamentary Affairs, 73(Supplement_1), 1-6.