Transnational relations refer to coalitions, interactions, and contacts beyond state boundaries that are not controlled by foreign policy organs. They are regular cross-border interactions whereby non-state actors play a major role. Transnational relations open the globalization concept in which a variety of actors take part in growing global exchanges. A historical example of transnational relations is the industrial revolution. This paper discusses the industrial revolution as an example of transnational relations and their influence on international society.
The industrial revolution is the process through which change was achieved from the agrarian and handicraft economy to the domination of industries and machine manufacturing. The industrial revolution started in the 18th century in Britain and spread across the world. The industrial revolution was characterized by technological, social-economic, and cultural changes. These changes such as the technological change brought about increased utilization of natural resources and mass production of manufactured goods. The industrial revolution occurred in two phases; the first and second revolution.
Between 1760nand 1830, the revolution occurred mainly in Britain. The British did not allow any export of machinery, skilled workers, and manufacturing technology but the monopoly did not last long as Britons cited industrial opportunities across the world. European businessmen lured Britons to their countries. The industrial revolution moved to Belgium through William and Cockerill through building machine shops, making Belgium the first country in Europe to achieve economic transformation. Belgium’s industrial revolution majored in textiles, iron, and coal. France followed steadily in industrialization although behind Britain and Belgium. France became an industrial power by 1948, still behind Britain. The industrial revolution in other European countries lagged due to a lack of opportunities, power, wealth, and the existence of political conditions that prevented industrial growth. Germany’s industrial growth lagged due to lack of national unity and in 1870 when they achieved national unity they grew fats in industrial production outproducing Britain in steel and lead in chemical industries. Industrial power rose in the US in the 19th and 20th century joined by Japan that showed tremendous success. In the mid 20th century industrial revolution spread to nonindustrial zed areas such as China and India that showed great success eventually.
Evidence shows the existence of a new industrial revolution in the late 19th and 20th centuries. More natural and synthetic resources that were no previously utilized began being utilized in modern industries such as lighter metals and synthetic products such as plastics and new sources of energy. Developments in machine tools and computers brought rise to the automatic factory. Certain industrial segments became mechanized in the early to mid 19th century, but major significance in automatic operation was achieved in the 2nd half of the 20th century.
Technological changes took place in the revolution such as the use of new basic materials mainly iron and steel. Modern energy sources were utilized that included fuels and motive power such as coal, steam engines, petroleum, and electricity. The new machine that allowed more production with lower use of human energy was also invented such as the power loom. Science was applied more in industries and significant development occurred in the transport and communication sector such as the steam locomotive, steamship, airplane, radio, telephone, and automobile. Such changes increased interactions across the world and easy movement from one state to the other across the continent. Natural resources were also utilized at high rates and mass production of goods became possible due to the technological changes.
Development occurred in nonindustrial spheres such as the improvement of agriculture that made the provision of food for a larger nonagricultural population possible. An economic change occurred that resulted in the extensive distribution of wealth. Land declined as a source of wealth with the rising industrial production. There was increased international trade where various countries of the world began to trade with each other. Political changes occurred that reflected economic power shift together with new policies that corresponded to the needs of an industrial society. Education increased and spread across the world and people acquired the ability to move from one part of the world to the other in the search for education.
Social changes also occurred such as the growth of cities, development of working-class movements, and new authority patterns evolved. The Industrial Revolution brought a dramatic change for women. Many women acquired a chance to join the workforce for the first time. They had to scramble for opportunities with men. Men took most positions as factory workers with women taking only a third of the positions. Women started reform to change such situations. They becoming involved in politics and even demanded the right to vote. Great Britain allowed women above 30 the right to vote while the USA granted women the right to vote in the passing of the 19th amendment in 1920. as many of them entered the workforce for the first time. Women had to compete with men for jobs. Female factory workers often made only one-third as much as men. Women began leading reforms to change this. As women became more involved in politics, some began to demand suffrage, the right to vote. By 1918, Great Britain granted women over 30 the right to vote. The United States granted women suffrage with the passing of the 19th amendment in 1920. Movements to support women and empower women spread across the world with time with global movements being formed.
The industrial revolution is the process through which change was achieved from the agrarian and handicraft economy to the domination of industries and machine manufacturing. This paper was discussing the industrial revolution as an example of transnational relations and their influence on international society. The industrial revolution brought technological changesa that spread across the world and impacted global transport and communication. Increased international trade was also achieved and political changes that reflected economic power.
Hudson, Pat. The industrial revolution. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014.
Hartwell, Ronald Max. The industrial revolution and economic growth. Vol. 4. Taylor & Francis, 2017.